Match. Wood matches.
0,009 $ * - box |
box = 45 matches
[ L50 x B35 x H15 ] mm.
Matches. History of matches.
History of ways of getting of fire
Leaves in ancient times. Using fire has allowed person
To remove(take off) from itself dependence on a climate and district. However many
Centuries ways of reception of fire were primitive and very much
Difficult, only accumulation of knowledge in field of physics and chemistry
Has helped to simplify them. Only at end of XVIII century have begun
To occur adaptations for reception of fire, based not on
Primitive ways (friction, impact), and on chemical reactions
Matches as most
Convenient means for reception of fire, have appeared in first
Half of last century. In beginning of XIX century they represented
Itself wood лучинки with head from potassium chloride. For
Ignition head needed to be shipped in a sulfuric acid.
It is natural, that using such "matches" was extremely
Inconveniently and besides Dangerously approximately in same time has appeared
And so-called " Доберейнерово огниво " - bulky
glass device, in which hydrogen, выделявшийся at
Action of a sulfuric acid on zinc, lighted up at a condensation
Spongy platinum; other instruments for reception have appeared also
Fire, but all of them were poorly convenient in circulation or dangerous and
most important are so dear(expensive) what use them might
Only prosperous layers of population.
In 1816 first attempts were made
To use for reception of fire of phosphorus, but first present matches
Were invented in 1833 when in weight for match головок was
Yellow phosphorus is entered. head from such weight were easily ignited
At friction about a rough surface, however manufacture phosphoric
Matches was very harmful.
Charles Marks wrote about
To match manufactory: ".. .Эта manufactory is so known
harmful influence on health of workers and disgusting
Conditions, that only most unfortunate part of working class-
Half-starved widows delivered for it(her) children... " And in summary
Specifies: " Данте would find, that all most awful pictures of a hell,
Drawn by his(its) imagination, are surpassed in this branch
Application of yellow phosphorus was
It is dangerous, as phosphoric pairs, распространявшиеся on
To industrial premise(room) resulted in heavy diseases
Workers, causing, so-called, phosphoric некроз костей. It
Disease is described Лоринсеном (1839) during occurrence
match industry. " Para of phosphorus may operate токсически
On all organism, but their main action - local, in particular they
Cause некроз a jaw through кариозные a teeth ".
Lacks of first matches have forced to search for a new compounding
зажигательной weights. However safe matches have appeared only
Then, when nonpoisonous red phosphorus was open. This opening
Has essentially changed process of manufacturing of matches; yellow phosphorus
Have completely excluded from structure of match head. Such matches not
Might be ignited at friction about any rough surface,
Therefore began to prepare a special surface for ignition
Matches friction, namely: on lateral faces of a box began to render
Special намазку, consisting of red phosphorus, glue and others
Substances. These matches had no lacks of phosphoric matches and
Were fairly named safe.
Question on date
And a place of invention of safe matches various authors tried
To decide for benefit of lines of European countries. A priority of invention of matches
Without special bases and without authentic historic facts
Attributed to those or other persons of France (ле Шанселье), Germany
(Камерер), Austria (Прешель) etc.
Actually it is known, that
" Match manufactory conducts beginning since 1833. Since 1845.
She(it) began to develop quickly in England and from richly occupied
Parts of London it was distributed to Manchester, Бирмингам,
Liverpool, Bristol, Норвич, Ньюкэстль, Glasgow... "
About a place of invention of matches and author of any
Authentic literary materials are not present. first
match factory in Russia was registered in 1837.
In 7 years in Russia eight factories worked already: two in
Moscow province, four in Petersburg and two in
it Is necessary to note, that
In 1847 Russian industrialists rather well owned
Questions of technology of match manufacture. It
N.Vittom, teacher of chemistry proves to be true in
St.-Petersburg practical institute of technology,
Which wrote, that: " All before common огнивы different
Devices and names are nowadays left, because industry
In newest time so is successfully skilful to take advantage
theoretical chemical data distributed
Between estates of factory owners that has adapted conveniently
Flashing structures to making matches lit from friction,
Also had time to improve them up to such degree, that they,
Carrying out completely purpose, have become accessible on
To cheapness for everything that is why have far left behind itself all
Similar means also had tremendous success ".
However it is necessary to note, that match
Manufacture of pre-revolutionary Russia had all characteristic
Features of capitalist enterprises: preservation of secrets
Manufactures etc., that is typical for modern match
industries of capitalist countries. By virtue of it, in
pre-revolutionary period, certainly, might not be and speeches about
To regular research work on studying and
Rationalization of technological processes. Preservation of secrets
Manufactures has especially taken roots in connection with concentration of capital in
Hands of separate firms (Joint-stock company of match factories In. And.
Лапшина, Joint-stock company Чудовской of match factory " sun ",
Joint-stock company of match factory " progress - volcano " etc.) and
competition which has arisen between them.
Engineering of manufacture went mainly on a way of improvement
Machine-building firms of a design of equipment, and
In technology - way of introduction at separate factories rationalization
Offers практиков manufactures, and sometimes and
To regular work on
It is possible for perfection of engineering and technology of match manufacture
Was to begin only after Great October socialist
Development domestic match
Manufactures as branches деревообрабатывающей industries in
Pre-revolutionary time can be broken on following
I since 1837 on end 1848 - time
Occurrence in central cities of first match factories and to order
With it home-made occurrence of matches in
II from end of 1848 on 1859-1862
- time of decline and liquidation of city match enterprises because of
tax to matches under law of 1848 and at same time significant
Home-made distribution of matches in rural
III since 1859-1862 on 1888-
period of fast development of match manufacture in Russia as in
Cities, and in villages. At enterprises begin to take root
Mechanisms and machines.
IV since 1888 on 1914
- time of further development and perfection of manufacture
Matches, introduction of inventions and improvements, centralization
Manufactures and his(its) concentration in hands of small group match
Manufacturers - dealers, formation(education) of joint-stock companies and
As a result of first world war,
1914-1917 гг.. Civil war and intervention match
industry in Russia was strongly undermined. A part of factories
Appeared it is destroyed, on others manufacture has stopped because of
Absence of raw material and materials.
match industry began with transition of Soviet state
To peace construction. In 1920г. industry has given 632 thousand.
Boxes of matches, т. е. 15,2 % up to militarian (1913) manufactures
Matches. next years release of matches gradually grew and in
1926 г, has exceeded pre-war.
October socialist revolution have opened vast
Opportunities for wide development веек branches of a national economy
USSR, including match manufacture.
Rise match manufacture has reached(achieved) in time realization
Five years' plans. Entered operation Березниковский,
Чернореченский and others химкомбинаты and Грозненский a paraffin factory
Have provided match industry with domestic chemicals and
By 1930 our machine-building
industry has supplied all match factories with newest
equipment. A huge role in it have played former Росмаштрсст and it(him)
Factory "Металлист". match automatic devices made by these factory and
Completing equipment successfully worked all time up to
regenerative period which has begun right after Great
Within first пятилетки
Have entered in build such match factories, as " Red star ",
" Wave of revolution ", a name of Kirov, " X October ", a name May, 1,
Manufacture of matches by 1930 has reached(achieved) 250 % of a pre-war level.;
Since 1928 simultaneously with equipment of match industry
new automatic equipment works on development have begun and
To further perfection of engineering. Technologies and organizations
Match manufacture. Work begins with same time on
To preparation of engineering staff for match manufacture also it is created
match speciality, and then is organized also match
Laboratory at technological faculty Leningrad wood
Institute. In 1930 on basis of this laboratory was organized
State research match institute (ГИСИ), in
Which research works in area for first time will be carried out(spent)
Match manufacture first also is created полнометражный
Учебно-instructive film " Match automatic devices ".
Later ГИСИ was reorganized in
ЦНИЛСП-CENTRAL research laboratory
match industry which functions and in present
Time in settlement Balabanovo of Kaluga area as branch
central scientific research institute of plywood and
Domestic war немецко-fascist aggressors have put
match industry of USSR a huge material damage. On
Given to Extreme State commission invaders
Have destroyed 14 match factories general(common) capacity of 4 million
Boxes per one year.
In post-war period match
industry was quickly restored, and release of matches still
In 1950 has reached(achieved) a pre-war level, and present time
Considerably it(him) has exceeded.
industries now covers much
Needs(requirements) of population and export